The basic essentials for outdoor survival are shelter, water, fire, and food.
You can find drinkable water in the wilderness by looking for sources such as rivers, lakes, and streams. You can also collect rainwater or dew. If you are unsure if the water is safe to drink, you can purify it using methods such as boiling, filtration, or chemical treatment.
You can start a fire in the wilderness using a fire starter, such as matches or a fire steel, and tinder, such as dry leaves, grass, or bark. You can also use a magnifying glass or a battery and steel wool to focus the sun's rays.
You can build a shelter in the wilderness using natural materials such as leaves, branches, and moss, or by using a tarp or emergency blanket. You can construct a lean-to, teepee, or a debris hut.
If you get lost in the wilderness, stay calm and try to retrace your steps. You can also signal for help by creating a signal fire or using a mirror or whistle. If possible, stay in one place and wait for rescue.
Common dangers in the wilderness include hypothermia, dehydration, and heat stroke. Other dangers include wild animals, poisonous plants, and insects, as well as accidents such as falls and drowning.
Your survival kit should include items such as a knife, fire starter, waterproof matches, first aid kit, and a whistle. Other useful items include a compass, a map, a flashlight, and a tarp or emergency blanket.
You can navigate in the wilderness using a compass and map, or by using landmarks and the position of the sun and stars. You can also use a GPS device if you have one and if it has battery and coverage.
Some ways to find food in the wilderness include hunting and trapping small game, fishing, foraging for wild berries and edible plants, and setting up snares and traps. It's important to properly identify any wild plants or berries before consuming them, as some can be poisonous.
To keep warm in cold weather, dress in layers and wear insulated clothing. You can also build a fire and construct a shelter to protect yourself from the wind and snow. Keep yourself active as well, as movement generates body heat.
If you come across a wild animal, stay calm and do not make sudden movements. Try to slowly back away and give the animal space. Do not run, as this may trigger the animal's instinct to chase. If the animal is aggressive, make yourself appear larger and more intimidating by raising your arms and speaking in a loud, firm voice.
To prevent injuries while in the wilderness, be aware of your surroundings, wear proper footwear, and use caution when handling tools or equipment. To treat injuries, use the first aid kit in your survival kit. Clean and dress any wounds and immobilize any broken bones. Seek professional medical attention as soon as possible.
To signal for help, build a signal fire, use a whistle or other loud noise, or use a mirror or other reflective surface to catch the attention of rescue teams. You can also use the Emergency Alert System on your mobile phone to send your GPS location and alert emergency services.
Some safety tips for hiking and camping include being aware of the weather forecast, letting someone know your itinerary, carrying a map and compass, staying on designated trails, carrying enough water and food, and wearing appropriate clothing and footwear.